维基百科:: solving the problem in a tractable model system to gain insight into the real system
维基百科: Analogy: adapting the solution to a previous problem which has similar features or mechanisms
维基百科: Brainstorming: (especially among groups of people) suggesting a large number of solutions or ideas and combining and developing them until an optimum solution is found
维基百科: Proof of impossibility: try to prove that the problem cannot be solved. The point where the proof fails will be the starting point for solving it
维基百科: Reduction: transforming the problem into another problem for which solutions exist
维基百科: Research: employing existing ideas or adapting existing solutions to similar problems
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TRIZ ({{lang-ru|теория решения изобретательских задач|translit=teoriya resheniya izobretatelskikh zadatch|translit-script=Latn|translation=theory of inventive problem solving}})