- MathNotebook
- MathConcepts
- StudyMath
- Geometry
- Logic
- Bott periodicity
- CategoryTheory
- FieldWithOneElement
- MathDiscovery
- Math Connections
Epistemology - m a t h 4 w i s d o m - g m a i l
- +370 607 27 665
*My work is in the Public Domain for all to share freely.*
- 读物 书 影片 维基百科
Introduction E9F5FC Questions FFFFC0 Software |
CT groups - Does {$za=az$} express linear and {$za=az^{-1}$} express antilinear representation? And does {$a^2=1$} represent even and {$a^2=z^n$} represent odd?
Definitions A {$\mathbb{Z}_2$}-graded group is a pair {$(G,\phi)$} where {$G$} is a group and {$\phi :G\rightarrow\mathbb{Z}_2$} is a homomorphism. - Consequently, a {$\phi$}-twisted extension of {$G$} is an extension of the form {$1\rightarrow U(1)\rightarrow G^{\textrm{tw}}\overset{\pi}{\rightarrow} G\rightarrow 1$} where {$G^\textrm{tw}$} is a group such that {$\tilde{g}$} is linear {$\tilde{g}z=z\tilde{g}$} if {$\phi(g)=1$} and {$\tilde{g}$} is anti-linear {$\tilde{g}z=\bar{z}\tilde{g}$} if {$\phi(g)=-1$}, where {$\tilde{g}\in G^{\textrm{tw}}$} is any lift of {$g\in G$} and {$z\in G^{\textrm{tw}}$} is any phase {$|z|=1$}.
- "the group of operators representing the {$G$}-symmetries of a quantum system form an extension, {$G^\textrm{tw}$}, of {$G$} by {$U(1)$}
- the pullback construction defines {$G^\textrm{tw}:=\{(S,g)|\pi(S)=\rho(g)\}\subset\textrm{Aut}_\mathbb{R}(\mathcal{H})\times G$} where {$\pi :\textrm{Aut}_\mathbb{R}(\mathcal{H})\rightarrow\textrm{Aut}_\textrm{qtm}(\mathbb{P}\mathcal{H})$} and {$\rho :G\rightarrow \textrm{Aut}_\textrm{qtm}(\mathbb{P}\mathcal{H})$}
- {$\textrm{Aut}_\textrm{qtm}(\mathbb{P}\mathcal{H})$} is the group of quantum automorphisms of a system with Hilbert space {$\mathcal{H}$}.
- A quantum automorphism is a pair of bijective maps with real linear {$s_1:\mathcal{O}\rightarrow\mathcal{O}$} mapping observables (self-adjoint operators) and {$s_2:\mathcal{S}\rightarrow\mathcal{S}$} mapping states such that probability measures are preserved {$P_{s_1(O),s_2(\rho)}=P_{O,\rho}$}.
- The group can be identified with the group of (suitably continuous) maps {$s:\mathbb{P}\mathcal{H}\rightarrow\mathbb{P}\mathcal{H}$} such that the overlap function (also known as the transition probability function) is invariant under {$s$}, namely {$\textrm{Tr}P_{s(l_1)}P_{s(l_2)}=\textrm{Tr}P_{l_1}P_{l_2}$}
- {$\textrm{Aut}_\mathbb{R}(\mathcal{H})$} is the group whose elements are unitary and anti-unitary transformations on the Hilbert space {$\mathcal{H}$}
- {$\textrm{Aut}_\textrm{qtm}(\mathbb{P}\mathcal{H})$} is the group of quantum automorphisms of a system with Hilbert space {$\mathcal{H}$}.
A bigraded group {$G$} has a homomorphism {$G\rightarrow\mathbb{Z}_2\times\mathbb{Z}_2$}, which is to say, a pair of homomorphisms {$(\phi,\chi)$} from {$G$} to {$\mathbb{Z}_2$}. - A {$(\phi,\chi)$}-representation of {$G$} is a complex {$\mathbb{Z}_2$}-graded vector space {$V=V_0\oplus V_1$} and a homomorphism {$\rho :G\rightarrow\textrm{End}(V_\mathbb{R})$} such that
Define the group {$M_{2,2}=\left< \bar{T},\bar{C}\; |\; \bar{T}^2=\bar{C}^2=\bar{T}\bar{C}\bar{T}\bar{C}=1\right>\cong\mathbb{Z}_2\times\mathbb{Z}_2$} {$M_{2,2}$} has 5 subgroups: {$M_{2,2}, \left<\bar{T}\right>, \left<\bar{C}\right>, \left<\bar{T}\bar{C}\right>, \{\}$} The {$CT$} groups are the {$\phi$}-twisted extensions of {$M_{2,2}$} and its subgroups. They are bigraded groups. Group Extensions Wikipedia: Metacyclic group A metacyclic group is an extension of a cyclic group by a cyclic group. A metacyclic group is metabelian and supersolvable. - Metabelian group A metabelian group is a group whose commutator subgroup is abelian. The commutator subgroup (also, the derived subgroup) is the group generated by the commutators, the elements of the form {$[g,h]=g^{-1}h^{-1}gh$}.
- Supersolvable group A supersolvable group is a group that has an invariant normal series where all factors are cyclic groups.
Math Stack Exchange. Extensions of Finite Cyclic Groups. - In the group extension {$1\rightarrow <i>\rightarrow Q_8 \rightarrow Q_8/<i>\rightarrow 1$}, the quaternion group {$Q_8$} is not a semi-direct product. Note here that {$Q_8/<i>$} has the cosets {$\{1,j,-1,-j\}\cong\mathbb{Z}_4$} and {$\{i,-k,-i,k\}\cong\mathbb{Z}_4i$}.
- https://math.stackexchange.com/questions/3460265/extension-of-a-group-g-by-a-commutative-group-f
- https://math.stackexchange.com/questions/1429542/loop-group-of-u1
- https://math.stackexchange.com/questions/3379017/general-formula-for-group-extensions-by-an-abelian-group
- https://math.stackexchange.com/questions/2601555/extensions-of-finite-groups-by-compact-lie-groups
Group Extension Example: Extending {$\mathbb{Z}_2$} by {$\mathbb{Z}_2$} Consider the group extension {$1\rightarrow\mathbb{Z}_2\rightarrow X\rightarrow\mathbb{Z}_2\rightarrow 1$}. This says that {$f:\mathbb{Z}_2\rightarrow X$} is injective, that {$g:X\rightarrow\mathbb{Z}_2$} is surjective, and that {$\textrm{Img}(f)=\textrm{Ker}(g)$}. Write {$\mathbb{Z}_2=\{1,-1\}$}, and similarly, write {$1, -1$} as the elements of the subgroup {$\mathbb{Z}_2$} embedded in {$X$}. We know that {$g(1)=1, g(-1)=1$}. Suppose {$x\in X,x\neq 1,-1$}. We know that either {$g(x)=1$} or {$g(x)=-1$} and so {$1=g(x)^2=g(x^2)$}. This means that {$x^2\in\textrm{Ker}(g)=\textrm{Im}(f)=\mathbb{Z}_2$}, which is embedded in {$X$}. We have two possibilities: {$x^2=1$} and {$x^2=-1$}. We know that {$(-1)x\neq 1$} (otherwise {$x=-1$}) and {$(-1)x\neq -1$} (otherwise {$x=1$}). Likewise {$x(-1)\neq 1,-1$}. Thus we know that {$((-1)x)^2=(x(-1))^2=1$}. Consequently, {$1=(-1)x(-1)x=x(-1)x(-1)$} and so {$[x(-1)](-1)x(-1)x=(-1)x(-1)x[x(-1)]$}, thus {$x(-1)=(-1)x$}. This means that we can write {$-x=(-1)x=x(-1)$} and the group {$\{1,-1,x,-x\}$} is commutative. We know that {$\mathbb{Z}_2=X/\mathbb{Z}_2$} and this means that {$|X|=4$}, thus {$X=\{1,-1,x,-x\}$}. There are two possibilities for {$X$}. - If {$x^2=–1$}, then {$x$} generates {$X=\{1,x,x^2=-1,x^3=-x\}=\mathbb{Z}_4$}.
- If {$x^2=1$}, then we can set {$X=\{1=(1,1),-1=(-1,1),x=(1,-1),-x=(-1,-1)\}$}, which is {$\mathbb{Z}_2\times\mathbb{Z}_2$}.
Group Extension Example: Extending {$\mathbb{Z}_2$} by {$\mathbb{Z}_4$} Group extension example: Extending {$\mathbb{Z}_n$} by {$\mathbb{Z}$} Math Stack Exchange. Group extensions of cyclic groups. Given a short exact sequence {$1\rightarrow N\overset{f}{\rightarrow}G\overset{g}{\rightarrow}\mathbb{Z}_2\rightarrow 1$} what are the possibilities for group $G$? In particular, I want to show that when $N=\mathbb{Z}_{2n}$, the only possibilities are the dihedral group and the dicyclic group, and when $N=U(1)$, the only possibilities are the pin groups $\textrm{Pin}_+(2)$ and $\textrm{Pin}_-(2)$. Group Extension Example: Extending {$\mathbb{Z}_2$} by {$\mathbb{Z}_{2n}$} Consider the group extension {$1\rightarrow\mathbb{Z}_{2n}\overset{f}{\rightarrow} G\overset{g}{\rightarrow}\mathbb{Z}_2\rightarrow 1$} These are cyclic groups {$\mathbb{Z}_{2n}=<\bar{z}\mid\bar{z}^{2n}=1>$} and {$\mathbb{Z}_2=<\bar{a}\mid\bar{a}^2=1>$}. The surjectivity of {$g$} implies there exists an {$a\in G$} such that {$g(a)=\bar{a}, g(a^2)=\bar{a}^2=1, a^2\in f(N)$}. Thus there exists {$0\leq i<2n$} such that {$a^2=z^i$}. Note that if {$x\in G$}, then {$g(x)=\bar{a}^k$} for some integer {$k$}, thus {$g(x)=g(a^k)$} and {$g(xa^{-k})=1$}, {$xa^{-k}\in N$}, {$x\in Na^k$}. Since {$z$} generates {$N$}, consequently {$z,a$} generate {$G$}. {$N$} is a normal subgroup of {$G$}, thus there exists a {$z'\in f(N)$} such that {$za=az'$}, where {$z'\neq 1$}, {$z'=z^j$} for some {$0<j<2n$}. We have {$za=az^j$} and we can calculate {$za^2=az^ja=a^2z^{j^2}$} and, in general, {$za^k=a^kz^{j^k}$}. When {$k=2$}, {$a^2=z^i$} commutes with {$z$} so {$z^{1+2i}=z^{2i+j^2}$}. Thus {$j^2\equiv 1 \mod 2n$}. We can solve this writing {$j^2-1\equiv 0 \mod 2n, (j-1)(j+1)\equiv 0\mod 2n$}, thus {$j=\pm 1 \mod 2n$}. Combinatorially, the number {$j=-1=2n-1 \mod 2n$}, if added {$2n-1$} times, shifts around the clock one tick smaller, starting from {$0$}, yielding {$0 - (2n-1) = 1 \mod 2n$}. Algebraically, {$(2n-1)(2n-1)=(4n^2-4n+1)=1\mod 2n$}. We have that the generators {$a$}, {$z$} are such that {$z^{2n}=1$} and {$za=az$} or {$za=az^{-1}$}. If {$za=az$}, then the two generators commute, so we have an abelian group, indeed, a finite abelian group of order {$4n$} with a cyclic subgroup of order {$2n$}. This group must be either {$\mathbb{Z}_{4n}$} or {$\mathbb{Z}_{2n}\times\mathbb{Z}_2$}. If {$a^2=z^{2m+1}$}, then consider the element {$a^{-1}z^{m+1}$} and note that, since {$a$} and {$z$} commute, we have {$(a^{-1}z^{m+1})^2=a^{-2}z^{2m+2}=z^{-2m-1+2m+2}=z$}. Recall that {$z$} has order {$2n$}, so {$a^{-1}z^{m+1}$} has order {$4n$} and generates {$\mathbb{Z}_4$}. If {$a^2=z^{2m}$}, then consider the element {$a^{-1}z^m$} and note that {$(a^{-1}z^m)^2=a^{-2}z^{2m}=z^{-2m+2m}=1$}. Note that {$a = z^m(a^{-1}z^m)^{-1}$} is generated by the elements {$z$} and {$a^{-1}z^m$}, which indeedy generate the group {$\mathbb{Z}_{2n}\times\mathbb{Z}_2$}. Now consider the noncommutative case {$za=az^{-1}$}. Applying this repeatedly, we have {$z^ia=az^{-i}$}. But {$z^i=a^2$} so {$z^i$} commutes with {$a$} and we have {$az^i=az^{-i}$} and {$z^i=z^{-i}$} so {$z^{2i}=1$}. Thus {$2i\equiv 0 \mod 2n$}. This means that {$i=0$} or {$i=n$}, which is to say, {$a^2=1$} or {$a^2=z^n$}. The dicyclic group is the noncommutative group of order {$4n$} generated by {$z,a$} where {$z^{2n}=1, a^2=z^n, za=az^{-1}$}. The dihedral group is the noncommutative group of order {$4n$} generated by {$z,a$} where {$z^{2n}=1, a^2=1, za=az^{-1}$}. The dicyclic group {$\textrm{Dic}_n$} is a subgroup of {$\textrm{Pin}_-(2)$} for which {$a^2=z^n$}, {$a^4=1$}. Note that {$a\neq a^{-1}$} so {$az\neq za$}. {$\mathbb{Z}_{2n}$} is not in the center of {$X$} and this is not a central extension. The dihedral group {$\textrm{Dih}_{2n}$} is a subgroup of {$\textrm{Pin}_+(2)$} for which {$a^2=1$}. Note that {$a=a^{-1}$} so {$az=za$}. {$\mathbb{Z}_{2n}$} is in the center of {$X$}, which is to say, this is a central extension. Group Extension Example: Extending {$\mathbb{Z}_2$} by {$U(1)$} Consider the group extension {$1\rightarrow U(1)\overset{f}{\rightarrow} G\overset{g}{\rightarrow}\mathbb{Z}_2\rightarrow 1$} The injectivity of {$f$} means that {$N=U(1)$} is embedded in {$G$}. The surjectivity of {$g$} implies there exists an {$a\in G$} such that {$g(a)=\bar{a}, g(a^2)=\bar{a}^2=1, a^2\in f(N)$}. Thus there exists {$z\in U(1)$} such that {$a^2=z$}. Note that if {$x\in G$}, then {$g(x)=\bar{a}^k$} for some integer {$k$}, thus {$g(x)=g(a^k)$} and {$g(xa^{-k})=1$}, {$xa^{-k}\in N$}, {$x\in Na^k$}. Also, {$f(N)\cong U(1)$} is a normal subgroup of {$G$}. Consequently {$f(N)$} and {$a$} generate {$G=f(N)<a>=<a>f(N)$}. Thus there exists a {$z'\in f(N)$} such that {$za=az'$}, where {$z'\neq 1$}, {$z'\in U(1)$}. We see that {$z^na=a(z')^n$} for all {$n\in\mathbb{Z}$}. In general, every element in {$U(1)$} can be written as {$z^{\lambda}$} where {$\lambda\in\mathbb{R}$}. This map {$z\rightarrow z'$} implies the continuous homomorphism {$z^r a\rightarrow az'^r$} from {$U(1)$} to {$U(1)$}. Topologically speaking, the homology group {$H_1(U(1))=\mathbb{Z}$} is given by the winding number. Now likewise, there exists a {$z''\in f(N)$} such that {$z'a=az''$}. Consequently, {$z^2=za^2=az'a=a^2z''=zz''$} and {$z=z''$}. This implies that our map is an automorphism. The only inverses in {$\mathbb{Z}$} are {$\pm 1$}. Thus the only possible maps here are {$z\rightarrow z$} and {$z\rightarrow z^{-1}$}, which means that either we have commutativity {$za=az$} or we have {$za=az^{-1}$}.
We can represent {$U(1)$} in terms of {$2\times 2$} matrices of real numbers. Suppose that we can represent all of {$G$} likewise and with {$U(1)$} thus embedded. We represent {$z\in U(1)$} with the matrix {$\begin{pmatrix}\cos\theta & -\sin\theta \\ \sin\theta & \cos\theta \\ \end{pmatrix}$}. Let {$a$} be represented as {$\begin{pmatrix}a_{11} & a_{12} \\ a_{21} & a_{22} \\ \end{pmatrix}$}.
Then {$$\begin{pmatrix}a_{11} & a_{12} \\ a_{21} & a_{22} \\ \end{pmatrix}\begin{pmatrix}\cos\theta & -\sin\theta \\ \sin\theta & \cos\theta \\ \end{pmatrix}=\begin{pmatrix}\cos\theta & -\sin\theta \\ \sin\theta & \cos\theta \\ \end{pmatrix}\begin{pmatrix}a_{11} & a_{12} \\ a_{21} & a_{22} \\ \end{pmatrix}$$} {$a_{11}\cos\theta + a_{12}\sin\theta = a_{11}\cos\theta - a_{21}\sin\theta$} implies {$a_{12}=-a_{21}$} or {$\sin\theta = 0$} {$-a_{11}\sin\theta + a_{12}\cos\theta = a_{12}\cos\theta + a_{11}\sin\theta$} implies {$a_{11}=0$} or {$\sin\theta = 0$}. {$a_{21}\cos\theta + a_{22}\sin\theta = a_{11}\sin\theta + a_{21}\cos\theta$} implies {$a_{22}=a_{11}$} or {$\sin\theta = 0$}. {$-a_{21}\sin\theta -a_{22}\cos\theta = a_{12}\sin\theta -a_{22}\cos\theta$} implies {$a_{12}=-a_{21}$} or {$\sin\theta = 0$}. Note furthermore that {$a^2=z$} and {$\det z=1$}. This means that {$\det a=\pm 1$}. Thus, if {$\sin\theta\neq 0$}, then {$a$} is represented by {$\pm\begin{pmatrix}0 & -1 \\ 1 & 0 \\ \end{pmatrix}$}, but then {$z$} is represented by {$\begin{pmatrix}-1 & 0 \\ 0 & -1 \\ \end{pmatrix}$} with a contradiction. Thus {$\sin\theta = 0$} and {$z$} is represented by {$\pm\begin{pmatrix}1 & 0 \\ 0 & 1 \\ \end{pmatrix}$}.
{$$\begin{pmatrix}a_{11} & a_{12} \\ a_{21} & a_{22} \\ \end{pmatrix}\begin{pmatrix}\cos\theta & \sin\theta \\ -\sin\theta & \cos\theta \\ \end{pmatrix}=\begin{pmatrix}\cos\theta & -\sin\theta \\ \sin\theta & \cos\theta \\ \end{pmatrix}\begin{pmatrix}a_{11} & a_{12} \\ a_{21} & a_{22} \\ \end{pmatrix}$$} {$a_{11}\cos\theta - a_{12}\sin\theta = a_{11}\cos\theta - a_{21}\sin\theta$} implies {$a_{12}=a_{21}$} or {$\sin\theta = 0$} {$a_{11}\sin\theta + a_{12}\cos\theta = a_{12}\cos\theta - a_{22}\sin\theta$} implies {$a_{11}=-a_{22}$} or {$\sin\theta = 0$}. {$a_{21}\cos\theta - a_{22}\sin\theta = a_{11}\sin\theta + a_{21}\cos\theta$} implies {$a_{11}=-a_{22}$} or {$\sin\theta = 0$}. {$a_{21}\sin\theta +a_{22}\cos\theta = a_{12}\sin\theta +a_{22}\cos\theta$} implies {$a_{12}=a_{21}$} or {$\sin\theta = 0$}. Thus {$a$} is represented by {$\begin{pmatrix}a_{11} & a_{12} \\ a_{12} & -a_{11} \\ \end{pmatrix}$} Again, {$a^2=z$} and {$\det z = 1$} implies {$\det a=\pm 1$}. Thus {$-a_{11}^2-a_{12}^2=-1$} so {$a$} is represented by a matrix of the form {$\begin{pmatrix}\cos\psi & \sin\psi \\ \sin\psi & -\cos\psi \\ \end{pmatrix}$}. Then {$a^2=z$} means that {$\begin{pmatrix}\cos\psi & \sin\psi \\ \sin\psi & -\cos\psi \\ \end{pmatrix}\begin{pmatrix}\cos\psi & \sin\psi \\ \sin\psi & -\cos\psi \\ \end{pmatrix}=\begin{pmatrix}\cos\theta & \sin\theta \\ -\sin\theta & \cos\theta \\ \end{pmatrix}$} {$\cos^2\psi + \sin^2\psi=\cos\theta$} implies {$\cos\theta = 1$} {$\cos\psi\sin\psi - \cos\psi\sin\psi = -\sin\theta$} implies {$\sin\theta=0$} Thus {$z$} is represented by {$\begin{pmatrix}1 & 0 \\ 0 & 1 \\ \end{pmatrix}$}, which is to say, {$z=1$}. Whereas {$a$} can be represented by any matrix of the form below, which is a rotation times a reflection. {$$\begin{pmatrix}\cos\psi & \sin\psi \\ \sin\psi & -\cos\psi \\ \end{pmatrix}=\begin{pmatrix}\cos\psi & -\sin\psi \\ \sin\psi & \cos\psi \\ \end{pmatrix}\begin{pmatrix}1 & 0 \\ 0 & -1 \\ \end{pmatrix}$$} - Math Stack Exchange. How to prove the group of automorphisms of {$S_1$} as a topological group is {$\mathbb{Z}_2$}?
- Math Stack Exchange. Extension of {$\mathbb{Z}_2$} by {$SO(n)$}
{$CT$} groups We want to calculate the {$CT$} groups {$X$} which are group extensions, as below, where {$U$} is a subgroup of {$M_{2,2}=<\bar{C},\bar{T}\;|\;\bar{C}^2=\bar{T}^2=(\bar{C}\bar{T})^2=1>\cong\mathbb{Z}_2\times\mathbb{Z}_2$}. {$1\rightarrow U(1)\rightarrow X\rightarrow U \rightarrow 1$} When {$U=\{1\}$}, the {$CT$} group is {$U(1)$} Consider the trivial subgroup {$U=\{1\}$} of {$M_{2,2}$}. What is the group extension? {$1\rightarrow U(1)\overset{f}{\rightarrow}X\overset{g}{\rightarrow} 1 \rightarrow 1$} {$f$} is injective, thus {$U(1)\cong\textrm{Img}(f)$} but also {$\textrm{Img}(f)=\textrm{Ker}(g)=X$}, thus {$X\cong U(1)$} is the {$CT$} group. When {$U\cong\mathbb{Z}_2$}, the {$CT$} group is {$\textrm{Pin}_+$} or {$\textrm{Pin}_-$} {$(\phi,\chi)$}-representations of {$CT$}-groups Identity: linear, even: {$\rho(I)=\begin{pmatrix}1 & 0 \\ 0 & 1 \\ \end{pmatrix}$} Time reversal, antilinear, even: {$\rho(\bar{T})=\begin{pmatrix}1 & 0 \\ 0 & -1 \\ \end{pmatrix}$} Charge conjugation, antilinear, odd: {$\rho(\bar{C})=\begin{pmatrix}0 & 1 \\ 1 & 0 \\ \end{pmatrix}$} Parity, linear, odd: {$\rho(\bar{CT})=\begin{pmatrix}0 & -1 \\ 1 & 0 \\ \end{pmatrix}$} Perspectives Time reversal fixes absolute perspective and flips relative perspective. {$\begin{pmatrix}1 & 0 \\ 0 & -1 \end{pmatrix}\begin{pmatrix}x \\ y \end{pmatrix}=\begin{pmatrix}x \\ -y \end{pmatrix}$} Antilinear swaps absolute and relative perspectives. - First perspective: antilinear, odd, squares to +1: {$\rho(\bar{C})=\begin{pmatrix}0 & 1 \\ 1 & 0 \\ \end{pmatrix}$}
- Second perspective: antilinear, odd, squares to -1: {$\rho(i\bar{C})=\begin{pmatrix}0 & i \\ i & 0 \\ \end{pmatrix}$}
- Third perspective: linear, odd, squares to -1: {$\rho(\bar{C}\bar{T})=\begin{pmatrix}0 & 1 \\ -1 & 0 \\ \end{pmatrix}$}
- Fourth perspective: linear, odd, squares to +1: {$\rho(i\bar{C}\bar{T})=\begin{pmatrix}0 & i \\ -i & 0 \\ \end{pmatrix}$}
- Fifth perspective?: antilinear, even, squares to +1: {$\rho(\bar{T})=\begin{pmatrix}1 & 0 \\ 0 & -1 \\ \end{pmatrix}$}
- Sixth perspective?: antilinear, even, squares to -1: {$\rho(i\bar{T})=\begin{pmatrix}i & 0 \\ 0 & -i \\ \end{pmatrix}$}
- Seventh perspective?: linear, even, squares to -1: {$\rho(iI)=\begin{pmatrix}i & 0 \\ 0 & i \\ \end{pmatrix}$}
- Eighth perspective?: linear, even, squares to +1 {$\rho(I)=\begin{pmatrix}1 & 0 \\ 0 & 1 \\ \end{pmatrix}$}
{$\rho(I)=\begin{pmatrix}1 & 0 \\ 0 & 1 \\ \end{pmatrix}$} Note that {$i$} is a choice from {$\pm i$} and similarly {$\rho(\bar{T})$} is a choice from {$\pm\rho(\bar{T})$}. The main (and only) perspective {$\bar{C}$} is the swap of absolute and relative spaces. Then it is a matter of the context for the perspective, which grows more sophisticated. Thoughts CT groups are relating structure (two on-and-off switches) and recurring activity (the circle). Bott periodicity cycles through all the ways of relating structure and recurring activity, thus all the contexts for patterns. Group extensions express a short exact sequence, a division of everything, notably the foursome, how perspectives carve up space and fit together. Thus we are matching graded representations of Clifford algebras and bigraded representations of CT groups. We also have nongraded Clifford representations. Are these the three minds? |

This page was last changed on October 13, 2024, at 01:59 PM